Tuesday, October 14, 2014

Kolkata and Chennai are not among Top Four Mega Cities of India

The mega cities are the ones which have population over four millions. There are only eight mega cities in India as per 2011 Census of India.  The Top four in descending population order are:
  1. Mumbai (Capital City of Maharashtra State)
  2. Delhi (Capital City Delhi)
  3. Bangalore (Capital city of Karnataka) and
  4. Hyderabad (Capital City of Telangana – new State of India)

The next in this order are:
  1. Ahmedabad (Gujarat)
  2. Chennai (Capital City of Tamil Nadu)
  3. Kolkata (Capital City of West Bengal) and
  4. Surat Gujarat).

The cities which have more than two million population are: Pune (Maharashtra), Jaipur (Rajasthan), Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh), Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh) and Nagpur (Maharashtra).

Traditionally, we have been hearing the four big metro cities of India are: Kolkata (old name Calcutta), Mumbai (Old name Bombay), Delhi and Chennai (Old name Madras).  If you consider urban agglomeration, we still count Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata and Chennai as top four major urban agglomerations in India.  Next six in line are Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat and Jaipur,.  Each one listed has population of over three million.

Wednesday, October 1, 2014

Highlights of Census 2011

1  It is significant that the percentage decadal growth during 2001-2011 has registered the sharpest decline since independence. It declined from 23.87 percent for 1981-1991 to 21.54 percent for the period 1991-2001, a decrease of 2.33 percentage point. For 2001-2011, this decadal growth was 17.64 percent i.e., a further decrease of 3.90 percentage points.
2  The combined growth rate of eight Empowered Action Group (EAG) States namely, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Orissa is compared with the rest of the States and Union Territories. The EAG group, from 1951 till 2011, have hosted between forty three to forty six percent of India’s population. Census 2011 marks a milestone in the demographic history of the country, as it is perhaps for the first time, there is a significant fall in growth rate of population in the EAG group of States.
3  The phenomenon of low growth have started to spread beyond the boundaries of the Southern States during 2001- 11, where in addition to Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka in the South, Himachal Pradesh and Punjab in the North, West Bengal and Orissa in the East, and Maharashtra in the West have registered a growth rate between eleven to sixteen percent in 2001-2011 over the previous decade.
     Sex ratio is defined in the Census of India as the number of females per 1,000 males in the population. The sex ratio of India is 940. The sex ratio at the National level has risen by seven points since the last Census in 2001. This is the highest since 1971. The sex ratio in India has been historically unfavorable to females. Sex ratio reached its lowest in 1991 but since then has kept rising.
5   In 2001, the State of Kerala and the Union Territory of Puducherry reported above thousand as sex ratio. Both these States have not only retained their status but have also shown considerable increase in 2011. Also females outnumber males in Goa. A point to be noted is that the States having historically low sex ratio such as Punjab, Haryana, Delhi and Chandigarh have shown appreciable increase in the sex ratio in Census 2011. Majority of the States identified as gender critical for special attention and intervention as part of the Census 2011 have shown increasing trend in the sex ratio. Only major States of Bihar and Jammu & Kashmir and Gujarat have shown decline in the sex ratio. The other Union Territories registering decline in overall sex ratio include Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu and Lakshadweep.
6   The population of India has increased by more than 181 million during the decade 2001-2011. 2001-2011 is the first decade (with the exception of 1911-1921), which has actually added lesser population, compared to the previous decade. Population (0-6 years) 2001-2011 registered -3.08 percent growths with - 2.42 for males and -3.80 for females. Literacy rate has gone up from 64.83 per cent in 2001 to 74.04 per cent in 2011 showing an increase of 9.21 percentage points.
7  Total absolute increase in population during the decade is 181.5 millions. Thane district of Maharashtra is the most populated district of India. Dibang Valley of Arunachal Pradesh is the least populated. Kurung Kumey of Arunachal Pradesh registered highest population growth rate of 111.01 percent. Longleng district of Nagaland registered negative population growth rate of (-)58.39.
8   Serchhip district of Mizoram has highest literacy rate of 98.76 percent. Alirajpur of MP is the least literate district of India with figure of 37.22 percent only. North East Delhi has the highest density with figure of 37346 person per square kilometer. Dibang Valley has the least density of 1 person per sq. km.
9  State having highest population is Uttar Pradesh with population 199.6 Million and which increased at the rate of 20% from 2001. Next state in order is Maharashtra with population 112.4 Million and which increased at the rate of 15% since last census. Delhi is most densely populated with a density of 11297 per sq km (an increase of 21% from 2001).  Bihar is the most densely populated state with a density of 1102 per sq km (an increase of 25% from 2001).
1  City census 2011: The total population of Urban Agglomeration (UA) and the city’s population in 2011 were calculated. All places which had a municipality, a corporation, notified town area community or a cantonment board was known to fall under the category of city or UA. Urban areas surrounding Cities are called Urban Agglomeration. Under UA census data for all cities having population more than 1 lakh was made available.
1   Beggars, sex workers and eunuchs get place in Census 2011 as other category for the first time.
1   Facts about Literacy in India: Ten states and union territories have attained literacy rate of above 85 per cent. 74% of Indians can now read, write and do basic mathematical calculations (like adding, subtracting) — that means that 3 out of every 4 Indians are literate.
1   Interesting facts about Telecom and Sanitation Facility in India: India has more phones than toilets. 63.2 per cent households in India now have a telephone/mobile facility (82 per cent in urban and 54 per cent in rural area.) The penetration of mobile phone is 59 per cent and landline is 10 per cent, whereas, more than half of Indian households (some 53.1 per cent) do not have access to basic facility of a toilet.
1   Facts about Communication in India: The penetration of computers and laptops in India is only 9.4 per cent or less than one out of 10 households with only 3 per cent having internet facility. The penetration of internet is 8 per cent in urban as compared to less than 1 per cent in rural area. Maharashtra is the biggest Indian Internet market with 18 %. 47.2 % of Indians own a Television. 19.9 % of Indians own a Radio/Transistors. 13.42 Million broadband connections (Home and Offices combined) are in India.
1   Facts about Possession of Assets in India: Only 18 per cent of households do not have any of the specified assets — radio, TV, computer/laptop, phones, means of transportation (bicycle, car/jeep/van, scooter, motorcycle/moped).

1   Facts about Transport in India:  Bicycle penetration: Household penetration for bicycle inched up marginally from 43.7% to 44.8%. In urban India the penetration for bicycle actually declined from 46.0% to 41.9%. Among the larger states Uttar Pradesh and Punjab have a penetration level of 60% plus.  Two Wheeler (Motor) Penetration: Household penetration of two wheelers on an all India basis increased from 11.7% to 21.0% over the decade 2001-11. Two wheeler household penetration in rural India increased by more than double i.e., to 14.3%, the growth in urban India was from 24.7% to 35.2%. Above average growth recorded for Northeastern states and Bihar. Household penetration for passenger vehicles almost doubled over the decade: Four wheeler penetration jumped from 2.5% to 4.7% over 2001-11. In the urban India it was at 9.7% while in the rural region it was at 2.3%. High growth was recorded in Rajasthan & Gujarat.

Some Interesting Facts Emerged from 2011 Census of India

1  The population of India has increased by more than 181 million during the decade 2001-2011. This addition is slightly lower than the population of Brazil, the fifth most populous country in the world.

    India’s population is now bigger than the combined population of USA, Indonesia, Brazil, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
2  The gap between India, the country with the second largest population in the world and China, the country with the largest population in the world has narrowed from 238 million in 2001 to nearly 131 million in 2011. On the other hand, the gap between India and the United States of America, which has the third largest population, has now widened to about 902 million from 741 million in 2001.
3   A point that is striking is that while India accounts for a meager 2.4 percent of the world surface area, it supports and sustains a whopping 17.5 percent of the world population. Density of population (per sq.km.) is 382.
4  The world population grew at an annual rate of 1.23 percent during 2000-2010. China registered a much lower annual growth rate of population (0.53 percent) during 2000-2010, as compared to India (1.64 percent during 2001-2011). India will overtake china by 2030 and have 18% of the world’s population.
5  Uttar Pradesh continues to be the most populous State in the country with 200 million people, which is more than the population of Brazil, the fifth most populous country in the world. The combined population of Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra (the second most populous State in India), at 312 million, is substantially greater than the population of USA, the third most populous country of the world.
Over 50% of the population of India is aged under 25 and over 65% of the population of India is aged under 35. It is anticipated that the median age of an Indian citizen will be 29 years in 2020, in comparison to 48 for Japan and 37 for China.