Friday, August 28, 2015

Importance of Various Sectors in Indian Economy as per New Series at 2011-12 Prices



Here below we present the share of Gross Value Added (GVA) at factor cost by economic activity at constant (2011-12) prices for the various sectors for the year 2011-12 (Base Year) and for latest available years 2012-13 and 2013-14.

Sectors
Share of GVA at (2011-12) Prices
(%)
    
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
1.  agriculture, forestry & fishing
18.9
18.4
17.9
2.  mining & quarrying
3.2
3.0
3.0
3.  manufacturing
17.9
18.1
17.9
4.  electricity, gas, water supply &        utility Services
2.5
2.4
2.3
5.  construction
9.4
8.6
8.2
6.  trade, repair, hotels & restaurant
10.7
11.2
11.8
7. transport, storage, communication & services related to broadcasting
6.6
6.8
6.9
8. financial Services
5.8
5.9
5.9
9. real estate, ownership of dwelling & professional services
12.5
13.2
13.4
10.  public administration & defence
6.0
5.9
5.8
11. other services
6.5
6.5
6.8
12. Total GVA at Factor Cost
100.0
100.0
100.0


The primary sector of the economy is the sector of an economy making direct use of natural resources. This includes agriculture, forestry and fishing, mining & quarrying.
The secondary sector of the economy or industrial sector includes those economic sectors that create a finished, tangible product i.e. production of goods and construction.
The tertiary sector of the economy (also known as the service sector or the service industry) is one of the three economic sectors, others being primary and secondary sectors.
In the primary sector, they may consume the natural resources and their reproduction may take many years. The industrial sector generally takes the output of the primary sector and manufactures finished goods. Many of these industries consume large quantities of energy and require factories and machinery to convert the raw materials into goods and products. They also produce waste materials and waste heat that may pose environmental problems or cause pollution. The Services Sector inter-alia includes sub-sectors like Trade; Hotels and Restaurants; Transport; Storage & warehousing; Communication; Banking and Insurance; Real Estate; Business services; Public Administration and Defence; Social and personal services; and Other services including Education, Medical and Health, Religious and Other Community Services, Legal Services, Recreation and Entertainment Services.

Sectors
Share of GVA at (2011-12) Prices
(%)
    
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Primary Sector
22.1
21.4
20.9
Secondary Sector
29.7
29.1
28.4
Tertiary sector or Service Sector
48.2
49.6
50.7

It can be seen as per the new series that the primary and secondary sector’s GVA shares are decreasing in India, whereas the tertiary or service sector is gaining the lost share of these two sectors.  Out of various sub-sectors of primary sector, it is mainly agriculture, which is loosing its traditional shine.  Within services, it is all the sub-sectors are gaining the share over these years except for the sub-sector public administration & defence, which is marginally loosing.  The prominent sub-sectors of services are trade and real estate, Ownership of dwellings & professional services and are the ones who at present mainly gaining the importance in the economy. 


This Service Sector constitutes a large part of the Indian economy both in terms of employment potential and its contribution to national income now. Central Statistical Office (CSO), Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation (MOSPI) is responsible at the Central level to prepare GDP (Value Addition) estimates for the Indian Economy. The estimates are being released through ages now. The official site of MOSPI does admit the significance and importance of the Sector. Over fifty per cent of total GDP (value addition) comes from the Service Sector even as per the new series. Although the service sector has a pivotal role in the country’s economic development, database in this sector is highly disorganized. A major limitation of the existing statistical system in this respect is the absence of a well-organized mechanism for maintaining a regular and proper database for this sector. For services like financial services, Railway Transport, public administration & defence, the data base is in the hands of the central/ state governments and so can be considered to be better organized and more reliable.  Thus for large chunk of services, CSO may be using some periodical surveys or other administrative / private sources. One may also infer that calculations of our national income may be in trouble as the major part of it having the basis of its calculations on wrong footing. Unlike the Annual Survey of Industries (ASI) that is devoted to collection of data from manufacturing and few other categories of units included in the lists maintained by the Chief Inspectors of Factories, there is no such operational scheme in the services sector for annual collection of data from the units either having a large number of workers or those contributing significantly in terms of annual turnover. The main difficulty in this regard is the non-availability of an up-to-date frame of such units and lack of regular mechanism for collection of data. The development of National Business Register being envisaged based on the Sixth Economic Census is likely to address the issue of frame to a large extent. The exercises for having a new series of national accounts have been completed shortly. There is still a good amount of more efforts needed for the existing and new services, which are all through coming into existence in order to make a better sound database for various services.

Indian Population Data by Religious Communities in the Year 2011



The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India have released the data on Population by Religious Communities for the 2011 Census. The distribution is total population by six major religious communities namely, Hindu, Muslim, Christian, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain besides “Other Religions and Persuasions” and “Religion not stated”.  The data are released by sex and residence up to sub-districts and towns.

Populations

Total Population in 2011 was counted as 1210.9 millions and the distribution among various religious communities is given as: Hindu 966.3 millions (79.8%); Muslim 172.2 millions (14.2%); Christian 27.8 millions (2.3%); Sikh 20.8 millions (1.7%); Buddhist 8.4 millions (0.7%); Jain 4.5 millions (0.4%), Other Religions & Persuasions (ORP) 7.9 millions (0.7%) and Religion Not Stated 2.9 millions (0.2%).

Proportions
The proportion of Hindu population to total population in 2011 has declined by 0.7%; the proportion of Sikh population has declined by 0.2% and the Buddhist population has declined by 0.1% during the decade 2001-2011. The proportion of Muslim population to total population has increased by 0.8%. There has been no significant change in the proportion of Christians & Jains.
Growth Rates
The growth rate of population in the decade 2001-2011 was 17.7 %. The growth rate of population of the different religious communities in the same period was as Hindus: 16.8%; Muslim: 24.6%; Christian: 15.5%; Sikh: 8.4%; Buddhist: 6.1% and Jain: 5.4%.
Sex Ratios

The overall sex ratio of the Indian population is 943 as per census 2011 with rural and urban areas having the same as 949 and 929 respectively (as expected rural is having less facilities to abort female children than urban families).  The overall sex ratio of the Hindus communities is 939 as per census 2011 with rural and urban areas having the same as 947 and 921 respectively (as one may expect it from the nearly 80% community in India). The case of next community (Muslims) the respective sex ratios are 951, 958 and 952 for overall, Rural and Urban residential Muslim families.  Only the Christians in India have overall, in rural and urban areas, the sex ratio of more than one thousand and are respectively are 1023, 1008 and 1046.

Urbanization

The overall urbanization ratio of the Indian population is 31.14% as per census 2011.  The Hindu communities are staying more in Rural areas (70.8%), the Muslims and the Christians are staying more in Urban areas as about 40% (both of them) stay in cities and towns, the Sikhs (more than 28% are in cities and towns) are more preferring to live in the Rural areas as Hindus, the Buddhists (about 43%) and Jains (about 80%) are preferring cities and towns to live in.  

Monday, August 24, 2015

The status of achieving MDG Goal 4 in case of India


 Definition:
Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to age-specific mortality rates of the specified year.

MDG Goal in this respect is

Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate


In India, we are having the following information as per World Bank.

Year
Mortality Rates, Under - 5
1990
126
1991
122
1992
119
1993
116
1994
112
1995
109
1996
106
1997
102
1998
99
1999
95
2000
91
2001
88
2002
85
2003
81
2004
78
2005
75
2006
72
2007
69
2008
66
2009
63
2010
60
2011
58
2012
55
2013
53

If we fit a linear trend, we estimate the same for 2015 as 44.  But as per the target fixed under the MDG Goal, we should have achieved 42.  Thus, we may miss the Goal marginally by 2 deaths.  It is well attempted by India.