Wednesday, July 22, 2015

Total Fertility Rate in India has fallen from 3.2 in 2000 to 2.3 in 2013



The Sample Registration System 2013 data says India's TFR, which had remained stagnant in 2011 and 2012 at 2.4, finally has dropped by 0.1 points in 2013. Education mainly of fair sex has been found to play a major role in influencing TFR.  Total Fertility rate in India has fallen from 3.2 in 2000 to 2.3 in 2013.   Thus, at the all India level, India have not reached replacement-level fertility rate of 2.1, but the gap is now not that alarming as it was in the year 2000.  In the year 2012, TFR varied from 2.6 in rural areas to 1.8 in urban areas.  It seems that at present, a rural woman (having a TFR of 2.6) at the National level would have about one child more than an urban woman (having a TFR of 1.8).  In order to tackle the problem, one need to focus on rural areas that too in the States/UTs of Bihar, UP, MP, Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Assam and Gujarat, Haryana, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya and D&N Haveli.
According to the SRS 2013 data, twenty-three states/uts have achieved replacement level fertility of 2.1 and below. However, 12 states/Uts still have a higher TFR than this. These include Bihar (3.4), UP (3.1), MP (2.9), Rajasthan (2.8), Jharkhand (2.7), Chhattisgarh (2.6), Assam and Gujarat (2.3), Haryana (2.2), Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya and D&N Haveli. For the latter three states/UTs the data is not available for the year 2008 onwards, but seeing the time series data one may expect the same as mentioned here.  Among the bigger States, it varies from 1.7 in Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal to 3.5 in Bihar. For rural areas, it varies from 1.7 in Himachal Pradesh, Punjab and Tamil Nadu to 3.6 in Bihar. For urban areas, such variation is from 1.2 in Himachal Pradesh and West Bengal to 2.5 in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. Chart 15 presents levels of TFR by residence for India and bigger States, 2012.

States, which have not recorded a dip in TFR in 2013 as against 2012, include many states and the states are Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh and Jummu & Kashmir.  The dip had been in other major states was only by one point except for Uttar Pradesh it was by two points. 

According to the National Population Policy 2000, India should have reached the replacement-level fertility rate of 2.1 by 2010, and ought to attain population stabilization at 1450 million by 2045. Population stabilization is when the size of the population remains unchanged. It is also called the stage of zero population growth. However, India now expects to reach the population stabilization TFR of 2.1 at 1650 million by 2060.

Monday, June 29, 2015

Religious Practices in India through figures




The number count of people practicing various religions in India is being known through various population censuses and for the 2001; the figures are given as below:

DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION BY RELIGION

Religion
Number
Percentage
All Religious Communities
1028610328
100.0
Hindus
827578868
80.5
Muslims
138188240
13.4
Chritians
24080016
2.3
Sikhs
19215730
1.9
Buddhists
7955207
0.8
Jains
4225053
0.4
Others
6639626
0.6
Religion Not Stated
727588
0.1

Hinduism is the largest religious group in India; its more than 1 billion adherents (2001) compose 80.5% of the population.  Hindus comprise a majority in most of the states in India and are quite in good number also in Manipur (46%), Arunachal Pradesh (35%), Jammu and Kashmir (30%), Punjab (37%) and Meghalaya (13%).  They are in minority in the states/UT of Nagaland (8%), Mizoram (4%) and Lakshadweep (4%) in the year 2001, The latter states/UTs from Manipur to Lakshadweep are having majority of other minority religions,

Islam is the largest minority religion in India. According to the 2001 census, India is home to 138 million Muslims, the world's third-largest Muslim population after those in Indonesia (210 million) and Pakistan (166 million). Muslims compose 13.4% of the Indian population. Muslims are a majority in the state/UT Jammu and Kashmir (67%) and Lakshadweep (95%), and live in high concentrations in Assam (31%), Kerala (25%), West Bengal (25%), Uttar Pradesh (18.5%), Bihar (17%), Jharkhand (14%), Delhi (12%), Uttaranchal (12%), Karnataka (12%) and Maharashtra (11%).

Christianity is the third largest religion of India, making up 2.3% of the population. Christians comprise a majority in Nagaland, Mizoram, and Meghalaya and have significant populations in Manipur, Goa, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Kerala and Arunachal Pradesh.

As of 2001, there were 19.2 million Sikhs in India. Punjab is the spiritual home of Sikhs, and is the only state in India where Sikhs form a majority. There are also significant populations of Sikhs in neighboring Chandigarh (16%) Delhi (4%) and Haryana (5.5%). 

None of other religions form majority in any state.  Only Buddhists are in high concentrations in Sikkim (28%) and Arunachal Pradesh (13%) and other many ethnic faiths etc. are forming some concentration in Arunachal Pradesh (31%).

The proportions of various major religious groups in India over the years 1951-2011 are given as below:

Religious Group
1951
1961
1971
1981
1991
2001
2011
Hinduism
84.10%
83.45%
82.73%
82.30%
81.53%
80.46%
78.35%
Islam
9.80%
10.69%
11.21%
11.75%
12.61%
13.43%
14.88%
Christianity
2.30%
2.44%
2.60%
2.44%
2.32%
2.34%
n/a
Sikhism
1.79%
1.79%
1.89%
1.92%
1.94%
1.87%
n/a
Buddhism
0.74%
0.74%
0.70%
0.70%
0.77%
0.77%
n/a
Jainism
0.46%
0.46%
0.48%
0.47%
0.40%
0.41%
n/a
Ethnic faiths, others
0.43%
0.43%
0.41%
0.42%
0.44%
0.72%
n/a
Zoroastrianism
0.13%
0.09%
0.09%
0.09%
0.08%
0.06%
n/a


It could be seen that in India the growth of Islam is more than most of other religions over the various decades. Christianity, Sikhism and Buddhism are maintaining their proportions or one may say that they have increased very marginally as compared to 1951/1961. Over the years, Hinduism is loosing its shine decade after decade.